Archaeology of the San José (1708)
The First Cohort (2019) of the Post-Graduation Course in Nautical Archaeology at the Universidad Externado de Colombia
San José was a 64-gun Spanish warship that sank in battle, in 1708, and was found around 2015 in Colombian waters. As usual treasure hunters were quick to exaggerate the value of its cargo, in the hope of getting investors to pay for its recovery, which unavoidably entails the complete destruction of the entire archaeological site and the war grave it constitutes.
There is no rational or moral reason why Colombia should not refuse the treasure hunter’s proposal to destroy the site, slavage the goods with market value, and build an overpriced tacky museum. Instead Colombia should take this opportunity to develop a long term scientific project that would foster the development of archaeology, marine robotics, and the cultural projects.
In 2019, during the first post-graduation course in underwater archaeology at the Universidad Externado de Colombia, we decided to develop a working document with an analysis the archaeological importance of this site and a list of the the minimum rules of good practice required to disturb it.
- The cultural heritage is an integral part of the identity of every community;
- It must not be privatized or exploited for short term financial gains because it belongs to everybody;
- Archaeological sites are units and collections must not be separated;
- Archaeological sites must be surveyed or excavated by professional archaeologists;
- Archaeological excavations must be public and transparent and the data must be shared with the public.
Scientific Requirements of an Underwater Excavation
As a team, we have defined a number of basic, minimum rules of good practice that must be implemented, should the San José resting site be disturbed.
A site as large and as important as San José cannot be excavated in a few months, like it was proposed by the treasure hunters. The reserach model to investigate such a site must be something like those designed to study, excavate and protect ships like Kronan, lost in Sweden in 1676, or the HMS Erebus and HMS Terror, in Canada.
The treasure hunters bidding for the salvage of San José‘s cargo is public and stands as a shameful bundle of exorbitant promises impossible to fulfill.
This page will hopefully offer some good advice on how to preserve such an important and non-renewable treasure as an untouched shipwreck preserved at a depth that will protect the shipwreck for years to come.